Расшифровка славянского слогового и буквенного письма

Февраль 1, 2007

Runica and the Alphabet Writing

Автор 11:10. Рубрика Статьи на английском языке

Runica and glagolica. An inscription from the tempel Sophia in Novgorod21 was read by the epigraphist A.A. Medyntseva as VOYATA in the upper line and as SAICH (?)22 in the lower one. But on my opinion in these two-lines inscriptions there are the signs of Runica and the characters of Glagolica. On the left hand top we see the Glagolica character A, and a little righter we see the Cyrillic character C. All the disposition of the characters and signs is shown on the ill. 7.

The graffito from Sophia of Novgorod and my reading the inscription

Fig. 7. The graffito from Sophia of Novgorod and my reading the inscription

The whole text is as follows: АС, ИСАВИЧ-ВОЯКЪ ПСАЛЪ ТУТЬ. ВОТЪ АЗ, САИЧ, i.e. Я, ИСАИЧ-ВОЯКА ПИСАЛ ТУТ. ВОТ Я, САИЧ. It means: I, Issaich-wArriOr wrote here. Here am I, ISSAICH. It is an inscription-puzzle from nothing to do in the church building during a service; probably from the stranger name, Issaich, it was written by someone, perhaps a scribe. This inscription was made by three scripts: Runica, Glagolica and Cyrillic.

 The graffito from the St. George monastery of Novgorod and my reading the inscription

Fig. 8. The graffito from the St. George monastery of Novgorod and my reading the inscription

In the St. George cathedral of the St. George monastery of Novgorod was found a graffito of the XII century23, which was read as А СЕ СОЗОНЕ YЛ(Ъ), А СЕ ... ИСЛО [ibid.]. I read as АСЕ, СОЗОНТЕ, ПСЛ, АСЕ СЪДИИ СЛО(ВО), i.e. Я, СОЗОНТЬ, ПИСАЛ, Я СОДЕЯЛ СЛОВО. It means: I, SOZONT, WROTE, I HAVE MADE A WORD. Sozont is perhaps a sribe too. In the word SODII (MADE) the syllab DII was written by runica, and the word WORD was written by Glagolica. The text was made in three types of writing consciously as SOZONT first HAVE MADE A WORD like the Lord. Thus I suppose that the inscription is a joke.

Such inscriptions were found not many and their authors were the scribes, i.e. the professionals, who have to rewrite the texts from Glagolica into Cyrillic. But in general the Glagolica writing on the territory of Russia did not exist.

The inscriptions on Runica, Latin and Greek writings. There were many inscriptions on Runica and Latin script together on the territory of Germany after the invention of the book printing. Runica was present on the maps and the book drawings as the background meanwhile the main script on them was the Latin one. This background has have the outlook of someone no significant, for example the waves on a sea or the clouds in the sky. Such there were the Runica inscriptions on the St. Eusebius map, such there were the inscriptions on the Porto lanes of the XVI century. In general to find the simultaneous use of Latinica and Runica is not difficult, but I should like to give here an example from the area of the Veneto tribes. It is a text of the Late Antiquity which was found in the Rome fortress Dura-Europas on the shores of Euphrates river in Mesopotamia in that locality where the Rome defends line was situated. Inside the fortress there was the temple of Mithra; as it is known that the Romans have dedicated Mithraism from Persia, and here, on the territory of Babylonia (now Syria and Iraq) the influence of Mithraism was especially strong as Persia was the neighbor state. One of the dedicators (in the company of two distinguished acquaintances) who have ordered to make the dedication to Mithra in Venetic langusge24 was commander of the Roman archers, JARIBOL (or YARIBOL). Already this name one can consider as Slavic consisting from two Slavic roots, Yar (ЯР) and BOL (БОЛЬ); both enter in such broad known Slavic names as Yaroslav and Boleslav. The connection vowel is Slavic too. But up to now this name was us unknown; it is more interesting to be with it acquainted. Thus among the Romans there were the Slavs, it is a fact well known to the historians.

The fortress circled by the Syrian sands was captured by the Romans in 165 year BC, and in 256 BC was re-conquered by the Persians. Thus the inscription was made in the interval between these two dates, most probably in the beginning of the third century AD.

The passage was put on a relief of Mithra, may be scratched or cut, and the dedicator of it was Yaribol. Therefore we can name it the “Yaribol inscription”, although the grade of his participation is under question. The investigator Anthony Ambrozič, a Slovenian from Canada collecting and commenting the Venetic inscriptions suggested it to be Venetic one as the Rome province Venetia was a part of the Rome Empire. The passage24 is as follows:

The Venetic inscription from the Rome fortress Dura-Europas

Fig. 9. The Venetic inscription from the Rome fortress Dura-Europas

To judge the ethnic possession of the passage it is necessary to read it and to analyse the gained result; it is quite real that Yaribol was a Venetian. Epigraphic inspection shows that in the passage there are not only the characters of the Greek and Latin alphabets, but the Slavic syllabic signs too. Slavic syllabic writing I have investigate rather full in my monografies25-26, that is why I do not repeat here the said above. Of course the syllabic writing represents the sounds of a Slavic language few exactly as the character one, for example the sign DI one can read as DE, DY (ДЫ) and D’ (ДЬ), therefore this passage made in mixed Greek-Latin-Slavic script is for us of great value: it give us the possibility to represent the Slavic speaking of the third century AD.

The epigraphists already tried to read this passage; as a sample I give the attempt of A. Ambrozič:... 34. ...DI MI HRANET TO JESEN ŽENO H JO ZDRAJE JA JE, I RASJA RIBOLEUJC / .. AT JE (?) GOSTOJEDOT ON JE TOJI DE I TE ROJ (VAR) J! — “...May you save me the wife this fall so that she is healthy and that the fisherman grows... ‘AT JE’ (?) [Guest-food] he is yours. May heaven also protect (?) you!”27 The text is perhaps a prayer but a very strange one. First of all it is rather surprising that the author of the prayer does not ask the God, but allow him to save his wife as if the man was higher then the Lord. Beside it the Salvation Idea is pure Christian one, but in the Slavic text we see the word «хранить», i.e. “to guard” that means the safe-keeping of the body, but not the salvation of the soul. Then it is not clear why the God has to keep in health the wife when “she is healthy”. So “this fall so that she is healthy” does quite not understand. It means that if the wife is unhealthy she is not merit to be safe-kept. Who is the fisherman which grows - the son of YARIBOL? But why is he the fisherman? The children can be named after their hobbies in a private talk, but it is hardly real in a prayer. Quite unclear is the passage about the meal: whether YARIBOL has have courage to propose to the God the meal remained after the guests or even not touched by them, but prepared especially for them? Have we to treat the God on the remainder principle? Such action the truly believer cannot himself allow. I do not understand the expression may heaven also protect you. Here we see the permission from Yaribol addressed to the heaven to protect the God, as if the God has the need to be protected and as if Yaribol is in condition to allow to the heaven to protect the God. It is before us simply not accomplished translation, but semi-product of the epigraphist. A. Ambrozič could find the Venetic text what is in such a case rather difficult through the time expenditure task, and for this we have to be very grateful to him. Further he tried to divide the passage into separate words and to transcribe it what is the primary cultivation of the text — and we thank him for it too. Finally he gave the translation of the gained result which allowed us to determine its style and approximate sense. May be more by the first reading he could not do.

I am now in more advantage position as A. Ambrozič: before me there is the already made supplying, and I have some epigraphic experience and I do read the runica signs (about what A. Ambrozič has no understanding). Beside it I have some information from the Slavic mythology which as we shell see will be very useful. Thus not to diminish the result achieved by the precede epigraphist I understand that I have to go a considerable way to make clear the sense of this memorial. But of course I cannot guarantee that I shall go this way to the end as very often it occurs that the text can be improved and to it one can add something else.

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