Расшифровка славянского слогового и буквенного письма
The classical approach. For almost two centuries of the Etruscology development the Etruscan texts basically Germans and Italians scholars tried to read, about two tens researchers. We are interested with revealing the reasons on which the classical approach not only could not result in the sure reading and easy understanding of the Etruscan texts, but also was not capable to make it basically.
Fig. 2. Figure on an Etruscan vase
Zackary Mayani. Among all Etruscologists last time especially allocate French researcher Zackary Mayani with his book “Les Etrusques Commencent a Parler” Paris, 1961 about which rather highly has responded Agness Carr Vogin, having told, that his book has challenged to traditional hypotheses in the scientific environment. Being it is intrigued with so flatter estimation of the colleague, I have hurried to check up his surprising opening. Certainly, it is the easiest to do it then when there are certain Etruscan texts and when researcher in detail describes each step on his reading and interpretation. Such opportunity was presented: in quality fig. 10 of Mayani book (MAY, p. 72) the stage of fight on an Etruscan vase was represented. Classical Etruscan alphabet on which the researcher based, was already known, so the transliteration of the texts received by the researcher easily could be foreseen, however process of reading that is the most essential and significant moment of decoding distinguishing one researcher from another one represented doubtless interest. Now we had an opportunity to reveal it.
Drawing of a military duel on a vase. That writes prominent French Etruscologists whose book was specially translated to Russian and was published. I shall bring the long citation that the reader could realize all features of a problem solved by him. Though he has divided this citation into a number of fragments, I shall notice that Z. Mayani's text is written as rather art prose and read with the big interest: “One winter day in the afternoon in National library I for the first time was declined above figures on Greek and Etruscan vases, collected and issued by E. Gerhard more than 120 years ago (GER). Perhaps, they were was those ancient engravings which once, 25 years back, I have seen in library Mazarini. In these figures were very well represented charming small scenes taken of the Greek mythology. I paid my attention on one of these scenes on table CXXIV - fight between two heroes which were especially drawn. Left of them held an a bo) and a cudgel, right was armed with a spear, a sword and a board. Outcome of fight might seem not clear, but figure through itse dynamism, appear, showed that the person in the wolf skin has just let out from an bow an arrow which has wounded his opponent. This detail is not present in figure - you see that Etruscan graphic genius was not the slave of naturalism. Three words accompany with this figure (fig. 18), signs about a great skill. Two words are names of heroes, Adetes and Kaon, but we now are interested with the mythological content of this scene (MAY, p. 71-72). With the other words, at the left is Adetes, on the right is Kaon. That these words mean proper name, Z. Mayani does not doubt even for one second.
Now we shall consider a situation in our way. I understand an assumption of an opportunity of rearrangement of letters as our way, tracings of some letters implicitly, as a detail of figure, and also an opportunity resounding and devocalizations agreeable, that is inherent in all to the Indo-European languages, but first of all Slavic.
The first inscription, that is at the left character, is read as usually, from right to left (instead of from left to right as Z. Mayani believes), however a bowstring of a bow forms an additional line and the additional letter, namely Р; two latter letters are rearranged, it is necessary to read not ОL, but LO, one letter not fully written, and at its level is visible the bottom jaw of a bear graze serving as a helmet and it determines the letter of G. Inscription STRELOG, that is ARROWS WARRIOR where last sound K completely lawfully is exposed resounding. It entirely proves to be true by a picture: really, AN ARCHILLER lets out an arrow that is he is an arrows warrior. However the same inscription is duplicated on his breast by Cyrillic where it is written completely clearly, СТРЕЛОК (POINTERS), already through K. Thus, before us is a typical bilingual text that is an inscription at once in two languages, Russian and Etruscan, and differences make only one letter. The situation is better than that basically may not develop. Thus, applied by me on the first sight excessive manipulations on revealing of a superfluous mast at the letter from figure on a bowstring, rearrangement of letters O and L, to perusal of a part of figure of a head etc. are not idle vanity around EASILY READABLE TEXT, but compulsory procedures on it) normal reading. Differently, if we want to read EASILY, we may allow ourselves it but then the sense read from us will leave; if we shall read DIFFICULTLY, with observance of a lot of shifts, it will BE already rather EASY for us to understand sense read. So, having made a number of procedures which I offer to name reduction of the text to a normal kind, we receive a noun in the Nominative case, and this will be common noun, and not so strange proper name as Adetes.
The second word near right archiller, I read as two, at Etruscan here is written words TKA ON (HE HAS POKED) where as the first letter the part of figure too acts, namely a forward part of a crest on a helmet. Word ТКА is aorist from a verb TO STICK (or TO POKE) - (HAS STICKED), and it is followed with completely Russian personal pronoun OH (HE) which has not changed at all in Etruscan language. Thus, before us not proper name Kaon, but the sentence HE HAS STICKED. This sense completely precisely corresponds to the image for the soldier with a spear and a board has recoiled back after drawing impact.
Already at this level is clearly, that reading proper name Adetes and Kaon is false, and that any mythology in these “names” is not present, as the left character is described as ARROWS WARRIOR, and right - as the subject of action, HE HAS STICKED. Thus the Etruscan spelling and a transliteration differs from Russian a little, and it is checked both conformity to the image, and duplication in Russian. With the other words our version of reading has two independent confirmations.
So, we see, that besides three Etruscan expressions (from 5 words), written OBVIOUSLY there is a Russian support in which we have counted already 4 words written IMPLICITLY as elements of figure, as in the Greek images on vases. From this it is possible to draw a conclusion that PRESENCE OF THE RUSSIAN TEXT ACCOMPANYING THE IMAGE BOTH AT GREEKS, AND AT ETRUSCANS DRAWINGS WAS FASTER NORM, THAN EXCEPTION. It not simply exclusively important conclusion, it will help us very much with the further analysis.
Who acts as the opponent warrior-Etruscan with the bow is to guess simply; certainly, it is a Romaer. The inscription at him on a helmet and a breast, ROME, does not leave doubts; hair of a head beaten out from under a helmet form Latin inscription ROMA, with the subsequent letter У, continuation of this beginning of a word are the letters ГРОЗА (THUNDER-STORM) traced on a bracelet of a hand. Thus ROME is УГРОЗА (THREAT). So HE HAS STICKED, but, obviously, has missed the mark, and further he WILL NOT STICK, but WILL KICK. That is to 4 words revealed earlier were added 3 more so that near 5 obvious words the Etruscans have found possible to write 7 implicit. From this it is possible to draw other rather important conclusion: IT IS MORE THAN HALF ETRUSCAN TEXT ON FIGURE IS WRITTEN IN RUSSIAN BY CYRILLICS, BUT IT IS IMPLICIT. It means, that the ETRUSCAN TEXT IN FIGURES IS BILINGUAL, ETRUSCAN-RUSSIAN, BUT WITH PREVALENCE OF RUSSIAN COMPONENT. And, hence, in decoding of Etruscan language the researcher thoroughly familiar with Russian should be engaged.
Inscriptions on playing dices. As we remember, decoding of six symbols on playing dices Agnes Carr Vogin has named curious new interpretation. Therefore if till now we examined the important decoding of Z. Mayani now we shall consider his masterpiece about which with heat other researchers respond.. Z. Mayani wrote: “Six the first figures form separate group. We find them not only on epitaphs (where the age of deceased or quantity of his children are written) or is specified in the Book of a mummy (where dates of periodically repeating religious ceremonies, quantity of gifts), but also on Etruscan playing dices, for example, are specified. In Etruria of them many copies were found. On pair such dices, named Campanari or Tuscan dices, instead of usual points six words were found out which I here have in alphabetic order and which in a unknown sequence correspond to numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 - CI, HUQ, MAc, SA, QU, ZAL» (MAY, p. 92-93). The researcher writes about words instead of figures as if he is convinced that Etruscans wrote instead of figures or points their verbal equivalent. Meanwhile, it is a hypothesis which itself should be proved first of all. Personally it causes the big doubts in me. I had to read a number of runica inscriptions on so called astragals or mutton dices for the most popular game in antiquity was the game in dices (and the cube represents only advanced version of such dice), and on them there were no figures, but indications? for example to miss a course, to go, to go in the special way, to leave from game etc. Most likely, similar indications should be put and on the Tuscan dice.
“Having in our disposal dices are various. On one pair of dices (“Oten dices”) there are following Etruscan words: I VA EST URTI CAIUS VOLOTE. And, at last, there are chess pieces on which as on ours points from 1 up to 6 are put, but an arrangement of these points variously. Ten of the playing dices and such variety! (MAY, p. 93). The given paragraph shows, that Etruscans all the same not so aspired to reveal number of the received marks for inscriptions might have other purpose that is why the certain system in assignment of marks was not. As if to words, the quantity of letters in which naturally grew from 1 up to 6, I see in it a set of the most important Etruscan lexemes which Z. Mayami for some reason has not wanted to comment. Namely: I there is a grammar conjunction AND (Russian И), BA (Cyrillic) is a preposition IN before some letters, EСТЬ as I assume there is an infinitive of a verb TO BE (for the third party of a singular will be A), УРТИ (under an accent letter И) - a verb in the uncertain form, whose value outside of a context is not clear for me, and, at last, ВОЛОТЕ - plural number from word VOLOT, a giant. It is possible that the sequence of the given words forms some sentence of type AND IN LIFE TO BECOME GIANTS.
“If to start with quantity(amount) of the points put on the opposite sides these dices with points can be divided into the following categories:
а) 1 and 6, 2 and 5, 3 and 4. The sum of numbers of the opposite side) always makes seven.
b) 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6.
c) On unique dice we see 1 and 6, 2 and 4, 5 and 3 (BUO, p. 406).
To what type does concern Tuscan dices? It is a question.
And the photographic image of these Tuscan dices, a subject of long and furious fight, in which took part the Etruscologists of all times (fig. 13) are here (MAY, with. 93-94).
Fig. 3. Inscriptions on two sides of playing dice
I bring a photo of these Tuscan dices as cubes with put on it the Etruscan letters (A) and (Б) and besides it I bring more contrast variant of the top edge of a dice (A) - as (B) and as usually, I take out aside my own comment of the read marks.
The very first that is evident it is the central inscription by the Etruscan letters readable from right to left: all over again the letter K more to the right of central furrow, then hardly below and on itself furrow - the letter И, on same letter as ligature on the right above is letter Д, more to the left and above the letter И there is a letter A, at last still more to the left is present ligature from letters L and A. All together forms a word КИДАЛА (THE MAN WHO THREW), clear to the Russian person without translation as the PLAYER THROWING DICE. Thus, probably, the second sense was also: THE MAN CONDUCTING GAME, such as the modern croupier. With other words, to throw dice after demonstrating of this dice side must not one of ordinary players but croupier himself.
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