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Февраль 17, 2007

Etruscans Bronze Mirrors as Etruscan-Russian Bilinguas

Автор 05:07. Рубрика Статьи на английском языке

Etruscans Bronze Mirrors as Etruscan-Russian Bilinguas

Chudinov Valery


The back side of the Etruscan bronze mirrors contains the drawings where there are two types of inscriptions: obvious (Etruscan) and unobvious (Russian). The latter’s were constructed from the different signs (mainly in Cyrillic) of drawing details, for example of the hero’s hair curlicues, of the clothes’ folds, of the boot-stripes and so on. Partly some words in Etruscan and in Russian coincident in sence, and it give us seldom possibility to take the exact translation of an Etruscan word into Russian, the ancient language of international communication. The Etruscan language can be estimate as East Slavic one, resembling the Belarusian. Its name was “Etrusetska mova”, i.e. “Etruscan language”. From the Etruscan mirrors (which were the caricatures on the Roman State) we can obtain important political information about other states, mayor of which were Slavic, for example Phrygia, Frakia, Misia, Greek land, Samo and so on. We can pay attention on the chronological shift between the events in Etruria and ones in the other Slavic countries in approximately 950 years (i.e. third century BC for Etruria corresponds the middle of the seventh century AD for the other countries). We can see as well the linguistic features of the Etruscan: the strong A-pronunciation (instead of O), so called “reverse” of two sounds, absence of some vowels etc.

Having considered some alphabets of the Etruscan letters found in texts and offered by different Etruscologists including Etruscologists of a Slavic origin, I can tell the following: contrary to lulling opinion of such Etruscologists, believing, that they are able to read on Etruscan language wonderful by virtue of that the Etruscan alphabet is familiar to them very long time ago, the uniform artificial Etruscan alphabet (elaborated by the scholars) is not present till now whereas the founded on Etruscan artifacts common Italian alphabet obviously is not so rich as Etruscan one. Moreover, it is not known even, how many in appropriate to Etruscan texts the alphabet should be exist sound values and graphemes. The number of different sound values varies in them from 24 up to 27, number of graphemes - from 50 up to 165.

Clearly that if one does not have precisely verified alphabet it is senselessly to undertake decoding the Etruscan language. Shall I try to illustrate this idea on an example? We allow that we have decided to write down by the Etruscan letters two Russian words, the MAN and the WOMAN (МУЖЧИНА и ЖЕНЩИНА). Then, according to R. Peshich they should look as r11.gifr21.gif, according to P.P. Oreshkin the words would read as МВИУИНА and ЙЕНЗИНА, according to Martin Zhunkovich - as МВИЗИНА and ЙЕННИНА, according to Thaddeus Wolanski - as СУЙЖИНА and АЕНСИНА whereas classical etruscologist would understand, that before him are present the words МУШЖИНА and ЗЕНШИНА that is though in the latter case it would be read incorrect, but nevertheless it is closer on sounding to the case conceived to us than under alphabets of other authors. It is possible that namely therefore the classical concept in our days dominates in etruscology. But all the same it would be incorrect reading.

As we see the traditional opinion on a ratio of sounds and marks represents nevertheless very approximate alphabet, and seeing that Etruscologists for one year may read no more than 2-3 new words that is not simply read, but understand their sense, such approximations is for us not tolerant. The alphabet should be specified, advanced, and for this purpose on each of the offered values it is necessary to consider on 2-3 examples. Having compared them, it is possible to understand what offer passes, and what is not present. And only then, when will be revealed all features of a spelling of a word, it will be possible to be accepted for designing the Etruscan alphabet which will provide correct reading the Etruscan words.

The Etruscan artificial alphabet offered by the author

Fig. 1. The Etruscan artificial alphabet offered by the author.

How to construct the unified alphabet. As we have already noticed, offers on reading this or that mark are a lot. Only it is necessary to compare them with each other, believing that the clear and understandable Slavic word should turn out and, in particular, from the point of view of Russian. Thus, the special section on finding out of value of not clear marks arises - and it refers to as decoding. But as the basic decoding is already made and the basic file of marks does not cause doubts, we shall name this process “the decoding of doubtful marks”. I have made such section, however it(he) appeared approximately twice more largely any another, has demanded consideration about 20 examples, both with Italian and with the Greek reading, but the main thing, reading of each of determined marks though and seemed enough the simple procedure quite checked and unequivocal, however acquired such details in the reading, commenting general orientations of an inscription and revealing of grammatical features and different interpretations, that actually alphabetic part of researches appeared very modest and imperceptible. Besides the same examples then should appear by consideration of my or another's decoding that was absolutely unjustified. And to go deep in grammatical and culturological jungle only to find out this or that alphabetic value at this stage of research too looked completely unjustified. Therefore I inform only results, not being allocated from a lot of my predecessors which too have get only the completed alphabet, at all not explaining the reader how they came to such conclusion. Eventually the alphabet is only the working tool and if it allows making the sure and intelligent readings the same readings and are its best check. And as it to make it remains a part of creative laboratory of the scientist.

I repeat that I basically have united the basic innovations of my predecessors, having given only a few the supervision. As if to a transliteration I prefer to follow in this question P.P. Oreshkin that is to give it as Cyrillic.

Features of the offered alphabet. As we see, the offered alphabet contains 45 positions that at once give out its Slavic belonging. It is possible, that more marks here are allocated, than it is necessary for transfer of sounds in the Etruscan language, however the given alphabet has preliminary character and its validity will be checked up by the subsequent readings. It is natural, that many values of letters were taken at previous researchers so when the question will be features of their methods of decoding, will be told and about the innovations offered by them. The part of values, however, is offered by me as a result of reflections above decoding. On these I have offered 45 positions 63 various graphemes that it is reasonable enough, taking into account, that the Etruscan sometimes used variants of alphabetic marks as their alphabet in comparison with others was not quite determined.

The columns contain the following information: the first has marks which, in my opinion, appeared the most ancient. These are various points and their combinations with letters of the Italian alphabet (not modern, but of ancient Italia). The second column contains enough frequently meeting marks at performance of inscriptions by the Italian alphabet. The third column contains Etruscan marks at performance of Etruscan texts by the Greek alphabet. The fourth column gives a Latin transliteration, whereas the fifth column undesignated in the figure has a Cyrillic transliteration. However in given Etruscan alphabet all the same it is more marks, than letters in Cyrillic one.

As we see, here there are letters and for all sounds of Slavic vocalism (A, O, У, Ъ, Ы, Ь, Т, Е), and for the sounds with J (ИЕ, ЙИ, ЙА, ЙУ), and for the sibilant pair (ЗЬ, ЗЪ, ЖЬ, ЖЪ, ДЗ, ДЖ, ШЬ, ШЪ, ЧЬ, ЧЪ, ЦЬ, ЦЪ), both for Ф, and for X though here there are no letters for ПС and КС, and the letter Q has reading КА. Differently, the offered alphabet is much more exact, as it is represented to me, transfers both sounds, and to the graphics of the Etruscan texts, than previous, that enables to understand graphic shape, sounding and the contents of the Etruscan inscriptions much more full, more precisely and more sur, than it needed to be made to my predecessors.

I shall notice, that if I have not offered a new artificial Etruscan alphabet, I a little than differed from many generations of Etruscologists, for which “Etruscan is not readable”. And at me as I hope, Etruscan will not only be read and to be read easily, but also to be declined, conjugated and form normal Slavic sentences with sense strictly checked by another Slavic languages.

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