В.А.Чудинов

Расшифровка славянского слогового и буквенного письма

Февраль 17, 2007

Etruscans Bronze Mirrors as Etruscan-Russian Bilinguas

Автор 05:07. Рубрика Статьи на английском языке

Further inscriptions as edges, framing the top side of a cube are read. On the left border on vertical sometimes also it is horizontal it is possible to read inscriptions: DO NOT PLAY ON STONES, PLAY ON THE TEMPLE. The inscription is written in Russian and translation does not demand. However it completely excludes that picture which to us was drawn by Z. Mayani: Etruscans played dices in noise of taverns, moistening a throat a kind wine from Laena; it was submitted by affable servants... It appears, as the inscription says, sometimes played in streets where dices threw on stones, but it is more often and more traditional - in a temple, and at all in a tavern. Hence, Mayani not only nasty reads Etruscan as inscriptions, but he may not be authority and on knowledge of Etruscan customs. With other words, the culturological component of his interpretation contradicts an inscription on playing dice.

One more interesting detail of the given inscription is a presence of a preposition HA (ON) instead of B. Russian preposition B specifies closeness of a space (in a room, in the house), whereas a preposition ON - on an openness (ON THE FIELD). Expression ON with the word “temple” speaks well for that the Etruscan temple of that time, most likely had no a roof. The offer to play dices in a temple specifies that the temple of that time was just the centre of leisure - something like club of our days. For this reason games there not only were not forbidden, but opposite, were in every possible way welcomed. However, probably, floors of a temple were made of a stone; in this case to play on stones in dices it was not recommended.

On the top edge other inscription - GOOD GAME is read. I believe that division on “good and bad” games in an antiquity corresponded to our division of games on usual and hazardous. In that case “bad” game is a gambling. The given game in dices to them did not concern, as was marked in appropriate way. The mark “good” game most likely made sense “is allowed for game in a temple”; certainly, gambling of such mark had no. I shall note, that the word GOOD existed already in times of Etruscans.

Along the right side of a deepening the inscription THE TEMPLE OF RHOD, and also GAME lasts. In my opinion, the given inscription is extremely important, for beforehand it was not clear, which from three pagan temples (of Makosh, of Rhod or of Mara) was responsible for cultural leisure and entertainments. It appears a temple of the Rhod. Till now about such function of the given temple I had no data.

Along the right edge of the letter form a word WORKSHOP and along a bottom on the right the words OF THE RHOD’S TEMPLE are given. It means that the given cube not only is approved by a temple of the Rhod and recommended for game inside a temple, but it is made in workshop of the given temple as well. This steal of the manufacturer is made duly other inscriptions on craft products. Thus, micro inscriptions of the given side give exhausting information on a place of manufacturing of a cube (WORKSHOP OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD), about whether this game was allowed on the part of priests of a temple of the Rhod and, at last, about whether this game preferable of game in a temple of the Rhod instead of in the street.

Though I have read, probably, not all micro inscriptions, nevertheless them it was collected the whole 15 words, and except for the basic word traced on Etruscan PLAYER THROWING DICE. What in this occasion thinks Zakhary Mayani whose decoding of words on given cube so has shaken others Etruscologists? We read: At once we notice, that only one number MAc, it is written on both dices in the same direction while the direction of all other words varies. The conclusion was made from this, that MAc, might mean “one”, number with which normal numbering on dices” (MAY begins, with. 94). What word from Z. Mayani's point of view is written on the top side of the left cube? Having touched all possible established by his predecessors and confirmed by him readings CI, HUQ, MAc, SA, QU, ZAL, we are convinced, that is the closest to a word KIDALA last word, containing letters И-АЛ where И it was accepted for Z, and letter К, Д and last А did not read. With other words from 6 letters he has noticed only half, and from the staying three one has managed to read incorrectly. It turns out, that only 1/4 part of Etruscan inscriptions has got in a field of his sight whereas other 15 inscriptions, Russian, have already passed by. If to count up quantity these not read letters their number will make 68 which are added to 4 in a word KIDALA. It turns out, that from Z. Mayani's 75 letters has found out only 3 whereas 72 it has not found out, and one more he has found out, but has read incorrectly. The fraction 3/75 is 1/25, that is 4 %. Such is the reading of the best etruscologist in his most wonderfully read inscription.

Reading of other sides of the left cube

Fig. 4. Reading of other sides of the left cube

The small part of the same side is the left bottom corner, contains already sign target data, inscriptions WORKSHOP OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD and THE TEMPLE OF RHOD as we see it in the following figure. Consideration of the forward side which are taking place below is of interest also. I have given its two images with a different degree of contrast. On the right from them, reading from right to left, it is possible to reveal inscription ЗАКРИВАЙ that is CLOSE. It means, that the participant at whom the top side contained the given word, should close the set of points. Other inscriptions of the given side which manage to be revealed on it is a GAME OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD. Thus, the given game was not simply recommended in a temple of the Rhod, and its stock was made in workshop of a temple of the Rhod, but this game even was recommended as game of a temple of the Rhod, that is as some kind of this firm game. At last on the third side seen as a rhombus, the word is read from right to left THROW. It means, that now the cube should throw not croupier, but the same participant who threw it up to that.

As we see, all three inscriptions, CROUPIER, THROW and CLOSE have game sense, but at all do not correspond to numbers of points.

Let's proceed now to reading inscriptions on the second cube, omitting words already known to us, WORKSHOP OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD for what we shall pass to the following figure. On the left lateral side we see ligature from lines of letters, however, having started on the right from below and gradually rising upwards, we may read word АТКРИВАЙ that is OPEN. Etruscan language concerns to number “A-spelling” (the pronunciation of A instead O, for example ATKRIVAY instead of OTKRIVAY) so instead of a prefix OT- we naturally see prefix АТ-. Such the inscription has appeared quite naturally as up to it there was inscription ЗАКРИВАЙ (ZAKRIVAY) that is CLOSE. Probably, the player started to take a set of points with this moment, and, on the dropped out side of a cube, threw or he, or the croupier. The set of points was finished at the dropped side with the word ЗАКРИВАЙ. With other words, besides the given command cubes the cube with quantity of points which were set off only at presence of the given commands was thrown still; whereas after command ZAKRIVAY the player should expect the ending of game of the partners.

On a forward side the big letters from right to left write three words, THROW ON GAME. To our surprise, presence of a pretext demands the Nominative case instead of Genitive one. However, we meet such state of affairs in modern Bulgarian language. The given inscription differs from the previous inscription that, probably, after loss of the certain quantity of points there comes turn of the following player whereas after an inscription THROW the same player continues attempts. Certainly, at an inscription THREW(-PLAYER) the game is continued by croupier, however for the benefit of the previous player, but then the course passes to the following player. At last, on the top side of the second cube it is possible to read an inscription BREAK, that means, that all gained points are cancelled; probably, it is the most terrible for the player the side of a cube. Thus, we now know all the six commands existing in the given game.

Reading of key words on the verge of the right cube

Fig. 5. Reading of key words on the verge of the right cube

Now it is easy to see a mistake of Z. Mayani. He has wanted to determine the name of numbers on those cubes which did not bear them! Thus, his initial hypothesis was by us not only not proved, but also was denied most decisively. Moreover, he has still managed to read words THREW, THROW, THROW ON GAME, CLOSE, OPEN and BREAK as CI, HUQ, MAc, SA, QU, ZAL! Really a fantasy! Once again one can repeat, that IT IS CATEGORICALLY NOT POSSIBLE TO TRUST CLASSICAL READINGS OF WESTERN ETRUSCOLOGISTS!

That, we shall sum up. In the book of Z. Mayani was present only 4 examples of the Etruscan inscriptions decoding together with initial figures - prototypes, and we have considered all. In the first example he has read word STRELOG as name ADETES, second and third words ТКА ON - as name KAON, action NE ТКNЕ has understood as noun ENKTEN. Words NO PNE, as well as the STUB, DEFILE, ETRUSCAN and ROME - THREAT he has not seen at all. Thus from 11 words it(he) truly has not read any, and under letters has truly read only КАОN from 45 written letters, that is 4/45 or 1/11, about 9 %.

It is possible to deduce and arithmetic-mean size from the all attempts of Mayani, having combined 9, 24, 4 and 3 percents (the sum will make 40) and having divided on 4. The result will be 10 %. It is the real productivity of READING (I do not speak any more about translation!). Is it a lot or a little? Try to take any printed text, remove from it in any order of 90 % of letters and then try to guess on the staying marks of its contents. Hardly it will be possible to you. But now it is possible to tell, as far in numbers the phrase “the Etruscan is not readable” was justified: on 90 %!

From here it is clear that to take seriously Z. .Mayani's decoding or even to use results of his transliterations it is completely impossible.

At the same time it became clear, that ETRUSCAN IS READABLE, and on Etruscan texts words are placed as simply Russian words as Etruscan, but rather close to Russian on texts (that is quite clear, as ALL-RUSSIAN language, or, Latin, OBSCE, was uniform all-European language), or, as a rule, in the texts there are Russian words more, than Etruscan one.

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