Расшифровка славянского слогового и буквенного письма
Urn-hut from Alban hills. For check of existence of letter Э such most interesting monument as a terracotta urn-hut from Alban hills with “cut geometrical pattern” (БЛО, c. 76 fig. 9) for the asymmetrical pattern is an obvious inscription. About given monument R. Block writes so: “In what condition of culture and the common development there was a Tuscany between 2000 and 1000 years BC when here have appeared Etruscans? Certificates were kept, that here, as well as on all Italy, there was a civilization of a bronze age. About 1000 BC on peninsula the new wave of aggressors was carried by. They have brought with themselves technology of processing of iron with which help the indigenous population was inverted in slavery. During this first Iron Age the major manned centers were whether to the north from Apennines on Padan plain, or in extensive area in the neighborhood with Latium, e.g. in present to Tuscany and Umbra. There was extremely active civilization there which is accepted for naming Villanova, on the name of Villa Nova, small villages near Bologna where during excavation the first traces of its existence were found out.
This Villanova civilization is inherent in this some rather characteristic features. Up to us very few rests of Villanova villages and constructions have reached. Investigating tombs, it is possible to find set of traces of this civilization. Basically, at least up to 750 years BC, the Villanova citizens cremated dead men and ashes placed in urns usually biconic forms which occurs till 1000 BC in ceramics of a bronze age, and now becomes standard and widely widespread. These urns are rather rough and represent that Italians name impasto - ceramics from dirty, it is bad burnt clay. Urns have one or two handles, and that are in tombs, are closed by the small cover turned by the bottom part upwards. Sometimes this cover is replaced with a helmet with the big crest from sheet bronze. The sense of this ritual is obvious. A cup or a helmet schematically and roughly represents a head of the deceased. Such was the modest beginning of a funeral sculpture which as we shall see, has received a wide circulation on Etruscan cemeteries. However in Latium and especial in area Albano, ashes of the deceased placed not in biconical urns, but in the urns having the form of a herder hut (fig. 9). They and refer to us as urns-huts. Many similar subjects are found in Rome, in particular, on a huge cemetery which in the beginning of XX century was dug out on the Forum by the Italian archeologist Boni.
Urns-huts, obviously, were done on a sample of the real huts. These modest subjects give us representation about huts in which the first inhabitants of the Roman lands at tops of seven hills - these Latin or Sabin shepherds lived. These first citizens of Romul and of Rome, should be, order simple life of primitive shepherds. The archeologists, who have opened the rests of Villanova settlements, enabled us to imagine early stages of existence of Rome more clearly. There is nothing is more instructive, than similar check of a legend by a history...
Fig. 12. My reading of inscriptions on a urn-hut from Alban hills
Ceramic and bronze Villanova subjects decorated long time the simple geometrical pattern consisting of straight lines or broken lines, zigzags, triangles and swastikas. With time the decorative elements engraved or drawn, become more complex and magnificent. In middle of VIII century BC we observe changes in customs and rituals. The deceased henceforth not always are burnt; there is and extended a ceremony of the putting to earth (БЛО, c. 74-76, 77). Generally speaking, the ceremony of cremation was inherent in Slavs so to indirect attributes the Villanova culture may be Slavic. Besides to the monuments of cultures belongs the Capitol wolf so “the subject of Romul and Rem may appear not Latin and Sabine shepherds, but Etruscan ones also. At last, the kind of a urn-hut reminds me modified dolmen (Slavic “Temple of Mara”) or Russian “dead home”, rather than inhabited construction without windows, and the main thing is that this hut is without an aperture for an output of a smoke more. The house without the fireplace is uninhabited. So is an urn, not at all hut of a shepherd, but an exact copy of the funeral crypt pushed on a bolt. Besides on the nearest roofs ridge of this “hut” the syllabic mark of M turned head over heels, and on distant very much stylized mark И (flattened extremely out) is looked through, that creates runica word МИ, that is МАРА. From here there is an opportunity of that a geometrical pattern is not at all a pattern, but an inscription, and an Slavic inscription. For the proof of it it is necessary to read, what I do begin.
First of all, the inscription at the very bottom of a roof is allocated where the bottom part of an ornament forms three letters readable from left to right, -СКИ. It suggests, that before us - the ending of word ЭТРУСКИ, and that the beginning of this word is put as other letters developed differently in the top part of the same line. And it is valid, we find letter Э in a lying kind above the letter K, merged with it in ligature, and horizontals of this letter are inverted downwards, instead of upwards so at turn they due to give not Е, and Э. Letter T is merged in ligature with the underlying letter C, letter P - with letter И, and the letter U lays in a horizontal plane as a part of ligature C and T. Thus, word ЭТРУСКИ here is really written, and written by Cyrillic. Thus our assumption is justified, and culture Villanova may be understood as early Etruscan culture.
However skeptics may not convince the given inscription stylized under a geometrical ornament, they would prefer not florid, but the most normal inscription, in a line. Such on the given product is present on right bottom edge of hut door too and is lower, on a partition between a door and a floor. But for finding these inscriptions this fragment of a product is necessary for turning in color that is shown on a field of image on the right of the a cover. Very fine letters of Cyrillic, as well as on any Slavic ceramic products, it is possible to read under a door of an inscription WORKSHOP OF MARA (field on the left of a cover) and ЭТРУСКИ on bottom edge of the door (right of a cover). We shall notice that Э turnaround here is shown with the two features: it is unwrapped to the left and has round form.
To the left of inscription ETRUSCANS Cyrillic on a cover locates two marks in which I see ligatures of runica marks, and as well as the top line of Cyrillic is fixed sideways to the left. Namely: the right mark contains ligature of marks И and СЪ, and left - marks ЧЕ, РУ (РЪ), ВЕ, TЕ and РИ, that gives inscription ИСЪ ЧЕРЪВЕТЕРИ, that is FROM CHERVETERY. It is the extremely important inscription in all senses. From the point of view of a history it turns out, that Rome was occupied in the beginning of its history not by Latins and Sabins, but Etruscans from ЧЕРВЕТЕРИ (present city of CAERE), from the nearest to Rome Etruscan citiy. Further, we see the first high-grade inscription by runica on Etruscan on a product, containing five syllabic marks. G.S. Grinevich and A.Dmitrienko assumptions that Etruscans wrote Slavic syllabic marks thus are justified; however by mistake these researchers tried to read a syllabic way with the syllabic reading of Italian letters and did not search for marks of genuine runica. It turns out, that three centuries prior to bloom of own culture, approximately in 1000 BC Etruscans used on the letter Cyrillic and runica as all Slavic peoples. At the same time, they did not use the Italian letter. Why? Probably because it DOES YET NOT EXIST.
I believe, that it have thought up just by Etruscans, however while this assumption at me has no direct proofs. At last, it turns out, that the city of Cherveteri existed at least three centuries prior to Rome; its name is interesting, it consists of two words: ЧЕРВИ (WORMS) and ЭТЕРИ or ЭТРИ. The word WORMS means RED (the red paint for painters was made from a sort of worms); till now in Russian so red play card color is designated; but that it is more important, there is word ЧЕРВОНЫЙ (RED) and the TCHERVONETS (100 rubles) with the same sense (the banknote was red). And from here there is a direct parallel to CHERVONAYA RUSSIA for this name designated SOUTHERN RUSSIA. Word ЭТРИ or ЭТЕРИ is reduction from ETRUSCANS; hence, we here have originally area name SOUTH ETRURIA, or ЧЕРВЕТЕРИ instead of the name of a city.
On given “hut” there are at least two inscriptions. One of them is above covers where the big letter Ж is read. If thus to consider marks more to the right of it, representing partly ligatures, partly separate letters it is possible to receive a word ЖЕНСКАЯ (FEMALE). The same word is read at reproduction of letters of the column going at the left along a roof of the “hut”. The lowermost mark thus appears ligature which letters form a word УРНА (THE URN). So, before us THE FEMALE URN, that is a urn with ashes of a died woman. Thus, all 10 words of the given urn appear implicit.
Now it is possible to return to the name ЧЕРВЕТЕРИ as SOUTH ETRUSCANS. If there exist RED ETRUSCANS, and division into areas is copied from division of Medieval Russia, that, similarly to BLACK (Western) and WHITE (East) Russia should exist Black and White Etruria or, that is more exact BLACK and WHITE ETRUSCANS. Shall try to determine whether there were such names among the areas of Etruria. For this purpose we shall take advantage of a map of the Roman gains of Etruria (БЛО, c. 96, fig. 16).
Fig. 13. The Roman gain of Etruria
By shading it is designated: 1 - first half of IV centuries BC, 2 - second half of IV centuries up BC, 3 - about 280 years BC. On a map it is visible, that the city of Caere – former Cherveteri is capital of southern area whereas there are two other areas to the north. At east area the central city appears Вейи (Veyi). This name is very similar to a word WHITE (Etruscans), only Б is replaced on В, and ЛЫЕ - on ЙИ. However in Greek language BЕТА in Middle Ages it begins to be made as VITA, that is the sound Б would be replaced on В, and in the Spanish language Б and В (B and V) do not differ. So B it might be replaced on V. The word FLOWERS on Spanish will be FLORES, and on Italian FIORI exact so that sound L is replaced on J and E on I. So phonetic development of a word WHITE might result it in sounding VEYI. As if to the western area words BLACK ETRUSCANS might be made as ЧAРны этрусКи where firm Ч the citizens of Italia might apprehend as T (first sound of TCH). Then this word, ЧАРК, might phonetically change up to ТАРК (TARK). Besides this here words might add IN OTHER LANDS. Together word collocation TCHARNY ETRUSCANS IN OTHER LANDS became word ЧАРКВИНИИ, and then ТАРВИНИИ (TARQUINII). The three-part structure Black thus was reproduced, Black, White and Red Russia that further has resulted in names TARQUINII, VEYI and CHERVETERI.
Let's notice, that the same structure Saxons have reproduced when they have landed in Britain in VI century AD, having formed “Red” also (Southern) Saxony, “Black” (Western) and “White” (East), and these prefixes South-, West-and East-with word Saxony distances of a kingdom (after country) Sussex, Wessex and Essex. It is interesting, that word-formation here was maintained almost the same: the full word designating geographical concept and truncated up to one syllable name of the country. And as to more northern territory it appeared Northumbria, that is Northern Umbria; and just on fig. 61 Umbria lays to the north from the named three areas of Etruria (in Russia to northeast from White Russia laid Biarmia). So recurrence of division of Russia, the British Saxony and Etruria, probably, not casually, and reflects some standard system.
Let's notice, that a part of the lands of Russia, what was occupied by Polans, referred to as ВОЛЕВА РУСЬ that is FREE RUS. And whether existed FREE ETRURIA that is ВОЛЬ ЭТРЫ? Yes, we too find such name on a map of Etruria, it is city of Volaterry, and R. Block notices: “Volterra, on Etruscan Velatri it is located along an abrupt hill in valley Чечинып” (БЛО, c. 13). Thus, phonetic development of a word was ВОЛЬЭТРЫ-Велатри-Волатерры that is typical re-analysis. However why are here Polans? I believe, that if the basic part of Etruscans counted as their house the lands of Krivichi any part of the same Krivichi might live in territory of the next Polans and reproduce any geographical realities, for example the names of the same Polans in new territory. With other words, the territory of Polans might refer to as POLONIUM, and the territory adjoining to it as ПОПОЛОНЬЕ (the same word-formation, as in model РУСЬ-ПОРУСЬЕ-ПРУССИЯ). In Etruria we find hardly other names of districts and cities: BOLOGNA (P spells vocalized as B) and ПОПУЛОНИЯ, POPULONIA (O has passed in U as it is typical of the Polish language). On a map on fig. 61 Bologna is situated to the east of Pisa and has not gone in on a map. But approximately in the centre of this Etruscan Polonium are Volaterry, as Волевы Этруски (Free Etruscans).
If this logic is true, on a way to Etruscan Polonium to the north of Black Etruscans (Terqui), on the road TO OTHER lands there should be the certain intermediate area occupied by ETRuscans and POLONIUM, certain ETRPOLONIA. It appears, such city conducting IN ET (P) ULONIA was, and referred to as Vetulonia. Most likely, there lived Etruscans, PULans and Krivichi that is EULCHI. And we too find such city, Vulchi. But Krivichi, probably, still remembered, that they are natives of Russia even if they have incorporated to their descendants Etruscans and Polans; and approximately at the same breadth as Vetulonia, but to the east, we find RUS+E+L+I = RUSELLI. And even to the east we find Porusye or, faster, POETRUSYE = Perusia = Peruja.
Thus, the map of conquest of Etruria by Rome is first of all a map of expansion of Etruria to the north, or, being expressed by already got accustomed German term, Drang nach Norden (Nord-West). In what side there was a gain to understand easily: from originally very small and freakish, but obviously limited areas to the increasing, but limited conditionally, and to dim, to administrative areas. So was with Angles, Saxons and Juts occupied Britain (from small Kent right after ferries through Channel up to huge Northumbria it is far in the north) so was in USA with tiny states of New England and to enormous western states, with their administrative borders obviously lined on a ruler. So most likely, a gain of Etruscans has begun from the smallest territory of Red Etruscans or Cherveteri before creation of high-grade Red-Black-and-White Etruria. This high-grade Etruria also became a place of formation of actually Etruscan ethnos and Etruscan language and culture. And then there was an expansion not only to the north, but also and on the south, in Latium where Rome (later it began to enter not in the state of Red Etruscans as it is written on a researched Roman urn, but in the state of White Etruscan as it is marked on a map). It is possible, then Etruscans move to Crete and in other remote areas.
The new wave of immigrants, Krivichi and Polans, demanded also new places for moving; having assimilated Etruscan culture including language, they, nevertheless, all the same differed from hereditary Etruscans and consequently in the names of new Italian settlements have kept their old ethnic names. Probably, here there was the three-part structure where province Vulchi (with cities of Orvieto and Bolsena, in last name it is guessed word БОЛЬШЕНА, the BIG CITY) appeared “Chervona” Etpolonia; Vetulonia appeared “Black” Etpolonia conducting IN actually Etpolonia, and, at last, area RUSELLY-PERUSIA - more ПОЭТРУСЬЕ, that is faster Etruscanned Polonia, than actually by Etruria was reproduced.
At last, the third wave of immigrants, basically of Polans, more not caring about reproduction of three-parts structure, wins the big territory, having named it Volaterry, and goes further to the north down to Bologna. Such the history of Etruria sees according to toponymics and a history of the Roman gains.
Saying truth, it remains a question about the “Polans”: who they are, Polens or citizens of Kiev? The answer, probably, will be surprising: neither those, nor others. Really, if the city or district were named by Poles, they should name it Polsk or Polska. And second of the given names is realized in the today's name of the country (Polska rzeczepospolita ludova). To Polans (from a word POLYE through ЯТЬ) should have names of type Polyansk, Polyanska, Polyensk or, with the account of nasal vowels and losses of the first , something like Plensk, Ples, Plesnesk, Pliska. Last name belongs to city outside of Russia, taking place in Bulgaritn. But we have a word of POLONIUM where should live Polonynye, and the name of city should be Polonsk, Polotsk. Such city (Polotsk) really is present in Byelorussia.
Fig. 14. A map of Russia tribes in IX century
On a map of Russia tribes in IX century we see, that Polochanye and Krivichi are neighbors, no less than their central cities - Polotsk and Smolensk. So, by names, Etruscan Polonium was formed from somewhere under Polotsk.
However we shall return to inscription ИСЪ ЧЕРЪВЕТЕРИ on the Roman urn. This inscription helps us to understand becoming some Italian-Etruscan letters. So, letter I has left from a similar mark of runica and meant simply a sound И; in graphic development it has received restrictive strokes from above and from below, but has left the quality; modern researchers frequently confuse such mark with the familiar mark З where strokes turn to the present horizontal lines. Two II in succession are Ji, that is ЙИ, however Etruscans the first began to apply to two sticks connecting lines that has resulted in a mark conterminous with Cyrillic И.
Further there is the firm sound СЪ transmitted on the letter as square variant of a tracing C follows; it too frequently confuses to other marks by Etruscologists. But the most interesting is that a mark of runica ЧЕ which looked as became familiar for a designation of letter ЧЬ that differed from Cyrillic. It is very important for understanding as the inscription A I L (АЧИЛ, ACHIL) Etruscologists persistently read as AVIL, and AVILS ostensibly means “YEARS”. Letter R was formed of syllabic mark RU, RЪ, and in it there was a full conformity to Cyrillic; letter V from a similar syllabic mark with value ВЪ, here again there was a full difference from Cyrillic; letter T - from syllabic mark T with value ТЪ, that again corresponded to Cyrillic. Mark Ь with reading РИ in the Italian alphabet has not come. Thus, as a material for creation of the Italian alphabet Cyrillic with its updating from runica has served.
Originally I assumed that a mark designates firm variant of ЧЪ as against the letter C which designates ЧЬ. However in word ЧЕРВЕТЕРИ sound Ч appears soft; so, this assumption has not proved to be true. Then, probably, the letter designates etymological sound Ч, whereas C - sound Ц, перешедший in Ч; however, additional researches and supervision are necessary for last statement.
Thus investigation of pattern on the image of Roman hut appeared very fruitful.
The small volume of given article does not allow to result a number of the additional examples confirming stated hypotheses. However the method of reading of implicit inscriptions is represented to the most perspective in studying Etruscan language.
Гриневич Г.С. Праславянская письменность Результаты дешифровки. Энциклопедия русской мысли т. 1. Москва, «Общественная польза», 1993, 321 с.
(Grinevich G.S. Pre-Slavic writing. Results of decoding. The encyclopedia of Russian idea т. 1. Moscow, 1993, 321 p.) In Russian
Дмитриенко А. Памятники слогового письма древних славян. Этрусские надписи. Фестский диск. Линейное А и Б. Москва, «Белые альвы»б 2001, 224 с.
(Dmitrienko A. Monuments of the syllabic writing of ancient Slavs. Etruscan inscriptions. The disk from Phest. Linear A and B. Moscow, 2001, 224 p.) In Russian
Егурнов А.Г. Этруски писали по-русски. Москва, РИНКЦЭ, 1999,48 с.
(Yegurnov A.G. Etruscans wrote in Russian. Moscow, 1999, 48 p.) In Russian
Майяни З. По следам этрусков. Тайны древних цивилизаций. Москва, «Вече», 2003, перевод с французского. 432 с.
(Mayani Z. Les Étrusques commencent à parler. Paris, 1956) In Russian translated from French
Орешкин П.П. Русский язык из глубины веков. Санкт-Петербург. «ЛИО Редактор», 2002, 174 с.
(Oreshkin P.P. Russian language from time immemorial. Sanct-Petersburg, 2002; first edition Rome, 1984, 174 p.) In Russian
Pallottino Massimo. Testimonia Linguae Etruscae. Firenze, 1954, La nuova Italia editrice, 175 p.
Ратье Аннет. Этруски. 700 лет истории и культуры. Областное правительство Лацио-Италия. Даго,1987, 63 с.
(Rathje Annette. Gli Etruschi. 700 anni di storia e cultura. Regione Lazio-Italia. Dago, 1987, 63 p.) In Russian and partly in Italian
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